Tsutomu Haruta of Sony presented “A ½.3 inch 20 Mpixel 3-layer stacked CMOS image sensor with DRAM”. In just a few words : the sensor is composed out of 3 layers : top layer contains the photon conversion part (BSI), the middle layer contains a DRAM and the bottom layer contains the processing part. The first time that a stacked imager with 3 layers is shown. The mutual connections between the various levels of silicon are realized by TSVs. The image part can be readout very fast, much faster than the interface with the external world can handle. So the DRAM is used as an intermediate frame buffer : fast readout of the imaging part and data stored in the DRAM, next a slow readout of the DRAM to accommodate the slow interface of the total system. The pixels are arranged in a 2 x 4 shared pixel concept, with 8 column readout lines for two groups of 2 x 4 pixels. 4 rows of column level ADCs are included to allow the fast readout of the focal plane. Remarkable is the fact that the data generated in the top layer has to be transported in the analog domain to the lowest level where the ADC is located. Next the digital data is stored into the middle layer, being the DRAM. It was not mentioned during the presentation, neither during Q&A, why the DRAM is located between the top and bottom layers.
With this particular architecture of the system, one can readout the sensor part extremely fast into the DRAM and one can readout the DRAM relatively slowly towards the outside world. In this way artefacts of the rolling shutter are limited. Once the data available in the DRAM, it is also possible to work in different formats, even in parallel with each other : full resolution, or limited resolution as a kind of digital zoom. Another very nice feature of the sensor is its binning capability : by combining a binning on the floating diffusion with the binning in the voltage domain, the resolution of the imager can be drastically reduced. If this reduced resolution image is then sampled at a high speed, stored in DRAM and retrieved at a lower speed, an “on-chip” slow-motion is created. In the binned lower-resolution mode, it is possible to store 63 frames in the DRAM, captured at a speed of 960 fps. Demonstrations of this feature during and after the presentation were showed. Great images !
Some numbers : in total 17 layers of interconnect are used in the 3-layered stacked imager : 6M for the CIS (90 nm), 4M for the DRAM (30 nm) and 7M for the logic (40 nm). The imager has 21 Mpixels, 1.22 um pixel pitch, DRAM has 1 G bit, and the interface is MIPI based.
Shiníchi Machida of Panasonic presented a paper entitled : “A 2.1 Mpixel organic-film stacked RGB-IR image sensor with electrically controllable IR sensitivity”. Panasonic presented already a couple of papers with organic films on last year’s ISSCC. But in this new presentation, 2 organic films are stacked on top of each other : the top one is sensitive to IR light, the bottom one is sensitive to RGB. Both layers need a particular voltage across them to become light sensitive, and this light sensitivity has a particular step function. Below a kind of threshold voltage the organic film is not light sensitive and this threshold voltage differs between the RGB (low threshold) and the IR (high threshold). So if a large voltage is applied across the sandwich of the two organic films, both become light sensitive, if a lower voltage is applied across the sandwich only the RGB-film is becoming light sensitive. In this way the light sensitivity of the IR-film can be switched on and off while the RGB-film is still active. (Although the sensitivity of the RGB-film drops to about 50 % if the IR-film is switched off). Overall an interesting feature that other imagers with classical pixels cannot shown. Unfortunately (just like last year) no information was given about noise, neither about dark performance, otherwise a good presentation.